Research Article Open Access

Botulinum Toxin as a Novel Addition to Anti-Arthritis Armamentarium

Hamid Namazi1 and Zahra Majd1
  • 1 Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran


Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease and is among the most frequent health problems for middle aged and older people. There is strong evidence that proinflammatory cytokines contribute to cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis. Interleukin-1 is the prototypical proinflammatory cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of cartilage matrix degeneration. Results from studies in animal models provide stronger evidence implicating a role for interleukin-1 in the pathogenesis of matrix loss in osteoarthritis. These include the induction of proteoglycan loss by intraarticular injection of interleukin-1 and the capacity of the inhibitor of interleukin-1, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 ra), to slow the progression of cartilage loss in animal models of osteoarthritis. The botulinum toxin has been used in many clinical situations such as: cerebral palsy, headache, cosmesis and etc. Moreover, there is evidence that botulinum toxin specifically inhibits Rho GTPase by ADP-ribosylation of aminoacid ASn-41. Rho GTPase is necessary for activation of interleukin-1 inflammation pathway. Based on previously mentioned evidence we suggest, intraarticular injection of the botulinum toxin may be a useful therapy in osteoarthritis.

American Journal of Immunology
Volume 1 No. 2, 2005, 94-95


Submitted On: 2 March 2006 Published On: 30 June 2005

How to Cite: Namazi, H. & Majd, Z. (2005). Botulinum Toxin as a Novel Addition to Anti-Arthritis Armamentarium. American Journal of Immunology, 1(2), 94-95.

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  • Botulinum toxin
  • arthritis
  • cytokine
  • GTPase