Research Article Open Access

3D and 4D Printing as Integrated Manufacturing Methods of Industry 4.0

Antreas Kantaros1, Theodore Ganetsos1 and Dimitrios Piromalis2
  • 1 Department of Industrial Design and Production Engineering, University of West Attica, 12244 Athens, Greece
  • 2 Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of West Attica, 12244 Athens, Greece

Abstract

3D printing, also known under the term additive manufacturing, is a technology that allows the creation of complex and highly detailed objects using a digital model and a number of materials, such as plastics, metals, and ceramics. 4D printing is an expansion of 3D printing that incorporates time, meaning that the material used in 3D printing can change shape or properties over time. This technology is becoming increasingly important in the context of Industry 4.0, characterized by the Integration of cutting-edge technologies, including artificial intelligence, the internet of things, and advanced robotics into manufacturing processes. In Industry 4.0, 3D and 4D printing is being used to create customized products, improve supply chain efficiency and reduce costs and lead times. Additionally, 3D and 4D printing is also being utilized in sectors like aerospace, regenerative medicine and dental, and automotive to create complex geometries and parts that would be challenging or impossible to create using conventional production techniques. Furthermore, 4D printing opens up new opportunities in emerging, novel, sectors where the ability to create materials that adapt and change over time can be highly beneficial.

American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Volume 16 No. 1, 2023, 12-22

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3844/ajeassp.2023.12.22

Submitted On: 19 January 2023 Published On: 4 March 2023

How to Cite: Kantaros, A., Ganetsos, T. & Piromalis, D. (2023). 3D and 4D Printing as Integrated Manufacturing Methods of Industry 4.0. American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 16(1), 12-22. https://doi.org/10.3844/ajeassp.2023.12.22

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Keywords

  • 3D Printing
  • 4D Printing
  • Smart Materials
  • 4th Industrial Revolution
  • Industry 4.0