Research Article Open Access

Protective Role of Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides Against Stress Induced by Heavy Metals in Caenorhabditis elegans

Huixiu Ma1, Dehui Dai1, Guicai Chen1 and Weilian Hu1
  • 1 School of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Science and Technology, Hangzhou, China

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of different Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides (GLPs) on the damage caused by heavy metal ions. The polysaccharides (GLP-B, GLP-F, and GLP-S) were obtained from G. lucidum fruiting body powder, fermentation powder, and spore powder. The contents of polysaccharides in these sources were 0.95, 4.69, and 1.46%, respectively. The monosaccharide composition and functional groups of polysaccharides from different sources were analyzed by PMP pre-column derivatization and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Results showed that the monosaccharide composition, molar ratio, and functional groups of them were significantly different. The antioxidant activities in vitro were investigated based on iron ion chelating ability and scavenging hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical, and DPPH free radical assays. Results showed that GLP-F, GLP-B, and GLP-S demonstrated significant antioxidant activity. Among them, the strongest effect of GLP-F for hydroxylic group radicals; GLP-S showed the strongest antioxidant capacity in superoxide radical scavenging; GLP-B showed the strongest antioxidant capacity in iron ion chelating. The four heavy metal ions stress model (Cu2+, Cd2+, Mn2+, and Ni2+) was established using the Caenorhabditis elegans. Results showed that the lifespan, locomotion behavior, and antioxidant index of C. elegans were significantly changed by heavy metal ions (p<0.05). All of these three polysaccharides can significantly improve the lifespan and locomotion behavior of C. elegans under heavy metal stress (p<0.05). It was found that GLP-F, GLP-B, and GLP-S can significantly reduce the Malondialdehyde (MDA) content, as well as regulate the changes in Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) activity induced by heavy metal stress in C. elegans (p<0.05). This study showed that GLPs exhibited a protective effect on the toxicity of heavy metal ions, which may be related to the regulation of antioxidant index in vivo. Among the three polysaccharides, GLP-F and GLP-S were better than GLP-B. The mycelial fermentation powder, due to its high polysaccharide content, has promising market applications in reducing heavy metal stress.

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American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Volume 20 No. 2, 2024, 112-125

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3844/ajbbsp.2024.112.125

Submitted On: 19 January 2024 Published On: 18 May 2024

How to Cite: Ma, H., Dai, D., Chen, G. & Hu, W. (2024). Protective Role of Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides Against Stress Induced by Heavy Metals in Caenorhabditis elegans. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 20(2), 112-125. https://doi.org/10.3844/ajbbsp.2024.112.125

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Keywords

  • Ganoderma lucidum
  • Antioxidant Activity
  • Antioxidative Index
  • Heavy Metals
  • Caenorhabditis elegans