Research Article Open Access

Oil and Fatty Acids in Seed of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and Some Related and Unrelated Solanum Species

Robert Jarret1, Irvin Levy2, Thomas Potter3 and Steven Cermak4
  • 1 Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Plant Genetic Resources Unit, 1109 Experiment Street, Griffin, Georgia 30223, United States
  • 2 Department of Chemistry, Gordon College, 255 Grapevine Road, Wenham, United States
  • 3 Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southeast Watershed Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 748, Tifton, Georgia 31793, United States
  • 4 Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Bio-Oils Research Unit, 1815 N. University St., Peoria, IL 61604, United States

Abstract

The seed oil content of 305 genebank accessions of eggplant (Solanum melongena), five related species (S. aethiopicum L., S. incanum L., S. anguivi Lam., S. linnaeanum Hepper and P.M.L. Jaeger and S. macrocarpon L.) and 27 additional Solanums pecies, was determined by NMR. Eggplant (S. melongena) seed oil content varied from 17.2% (PI 63911317471) to 28.0% (GRIF 13962) with a mean of 23.7% (std. dev = 2.1) across the 305 samples. Seed oil content in other Solanum species varied from 11.8% (S. capsicoides-PI 370043) to 44.9% (S. aviculare-PI 420414). Fatty acids were also determined by HPLC in genebank accessions of S. melongena (55), S. aethiopicum (10), S. anguivi (4), S. incanum (4) and S. macrocarpon (2). In all samples examined, the predominant fatty acid was linoleic acid (18:2) followed by oleic acid (18:1) and palmitic acid (16:0). Levels of linoleic acid ranged from 57% (S. aethiopicum-PI 194166) to 74.5% (S. anguivi-PI 183357). Oleic and palmitic acid levels ranged from 11.3% (S. anguivi-PI 183357) to 25.2% (S. aethiopicum-PI 194166) and 8.4% (S. melongena-PI 115507) to 11.2% (S. melongena-PI 600912), respectively. Oil extracted from seed of S. melongena cv. Black Beauty had a pour point of -12°C, viscosities of 28.8 (40°C) and 7.3 (100°C), a viscosity index of 240, an oxidation onset temperature of 160°C and a Gardner Color of 6+.

American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Volume 11 No. 2, 2016, 76-81

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3844/ajabssp.2016.76.81

Submitted On: 30 September 2015 Published On: 4 May 2016

How to Cite: Jarret, R., Levy, I., Potter, T. & Cermak, S. (2016). Oil and Fatty Acids in Seed of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and Some Related and Unrelated Solanum Species. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences, 11(2), 76-81. https://doi.org/10.3844/ajabssp.2016.76.81

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Keywords

  • Brinjal
  • Aubergine
  • Physicochemical Properties
  • Genebank
  • TD-NMR